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Associating events

We have a tendency to relate events to help us better deal the world. We know that if there are dark clouds in the sky then we should carry an umbrella because dark clouds are associated with rainy weather. But the presence of dark clouds doesn’t mean it will necessarily rain.

Miss-associating events

Such associations can be misleading or even superstitious. For example, if you are having a conversation with a person and they yawn does this mean they are not interested in what you are saying? Possibly, but it could also mean they didn’t sleep enough last night or there isn’t enough fresh air in the room.

Making such associations implies that one event means the other, or one event causes the other. Of course there are situations where events can be associated, but often unrelated events can get associated which leads to misunderstanding and faulty logic.

Simply distinct events

You can recognize a complex equivalence by noticing when two distinct events are associated. This can be done by questioning the relationship they have with each other as well as looking for counterexamples.

In order to understand if the association is valid you must ask “how does this mean that” or ask for clarification: “does this really mean that?”


Complex equivalence makes an association between two events.

A complex equivalence can lead to a misunderstanding, limited understanding, or faulty logic.

To understand if the association is valid, ask “how does this mean that” or “does this really mean that?”

Related Pages

Unspecified Nouns
Unspecified Verbs
Modal Operators of Possibility
Modal Operators of Necessity
Universal Quantifiers
Complex Equivalence
Cause and Effect
Mind Reading